As the world tries to move away from fossil fuels, hydrogen is thought to be an alternative energy carrier because it can be efficiently used to generate electricity in fuel cells without pollution. To implement this fuel cell based hydrogen economy, however, we need to have practical solutions to controlled storage and release of hydrogen. Currently established hydrogen storage technologies include compressing hydrogen at high pressures (350 or 700 bar), liquefying hydrogen at low temperatures (below 20.3 K), or storing hydrogen as chemical/ metal hydrides. These technologies, however, suffer from high costs, low energy densities, loss of hydrogen, and safety issues.
2. Concept note
Synthesis of value added chemicals from carbon dioxide such as alkali metal carbonate, formic acid (potential material for storage of hydrogen) etc. Recently, scientists have identified formic acid as one of the most promising materials for hydrogen storage because formic acid is a liquid that contains 4.4 wt.% of hydrogen with a volumetric capacity of 53.4 g/l at standard temperature and pressure. In addition, diluted formic acid (85%) is an easy-to-handle liquid that is relatively non-toxic, non-corrosive, and non-flammable, which is an important consideration for transport applications. Formic acid will used in fuel cell for generation electricity and hydrogen will be used for renewable energy for everyday use and application in transport.
3. CO2 Valourization
a) Zero carbon foot print
Synthesis of value added chemicals from CO2 such as formic acid, alkali metal carbonate etc.
b) Recycle of CO2 economy
The process co-product, CO2, can be used as a hydrogen vector by hydrogenating it back to formic acid, ultimately establishing a carbon-neutral cycle on earth.
c) Sustainable recycle fuel
Hydrogen stored in formic acid (HCOOH) can be released on demand by decomposing formic acid into hydrogen (H2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) on a catalytic surface.