Currently worldwide, many problems are associated with the lack of clean water and it is well known that 1.2 billion people lack access to clean and safe drinking water. It has been estimated that 2.6 billion have little or no sanitation and millions of people die annually including 3900 children a day from diseases, transmitted through unsafe water or human excretion. Many more, countless are sickened from contamination and disease. Diarrheal and intestinal parasitic
infections caused by enteric virus and water borne bacteria have become a leading cause of malnutrition owing to poor digestion of the food. Moreover, modern injection solutions are safer, yet the literature continues to report adverse reactions because of the presence of pyrogens. In this issue we share the concerns for the patients who cannot take fluids orally, due to surgery or illness and who may suffer the consequences of toxins, if present in the parenteral product.
Concept and Scientific Rationale of the idea.Pyrogens are exocellular and endocellular biological heterogenous component causing fever composed of microbial and non-microbial substances. Pyrogen contamination in biotechnological, pharmaceutical product and medical devices can induce life threatening fever, allergic reaction, immunochemical response, so it is mandatory to ensure that the pyrogen concentration do not exceed particular limit as per pharmacopeia. Sterility test cannot address the complete elimination of pyrognic structure. They are persistent after elimination of living pathogen. At present, there are three test for pyrogen detection such as Rabbit Pyrogen Test (RPT), Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay (a bacterial endotoxin test), and a method based on human whole blood or human monocytes known as Monocyte Activation Test (MAT).
Our idea is to improve overall water quality, safe guard environment not only in industrialised world, but in the developing regions of the world as well, where less chemical and energy intensive technologies are greatly needed. Conventional existing technology cannot remove lysed microcellular component and viruses from water. To address such problems, we have developed a non-biological pyrogen/ microcellular component detection technique which can be subsequently used for purification, decontamination and depyrogenation of water.